The judiciary interprets the meaning of laws, applies laws to individual cases and decides whether laws violate the Constitution. It consists of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Chief Justice John Marshall noted that the executive`s power of pardon and pardon is rooted in English history and is “an act of mercy emanating from the law enforcement power and serving as a constituent part of the judicial system which the judge sees only with a judicial eye and knows nothing of a particular case. of which he is not informed in court”. 1 Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes added that pardon and executive forgiveness as “an integral part of the constitutional system” are “the determination of supreme authority that the common good is best served when less is imposed than what judgment determines.” 2 Cabinet and independent federal authorities are responsible for the day-to-day implementation and administration of federal laws. These departments and agencies have functions and responsibilities as diverse as those of the Department of Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency, the Social Security Administration, and the Securities and Exchange Commission. The president`s power to make treaties depends on the approval of a two-thirds majority of the Senate. The purpose of this requirement – as opposed to a simple majority required for the adoption of national laws – is to “ensure that treaties are not adopted unless the major part of the country benefits from them” and because, unlike statutes, which “could simply be abrogated”. An imprudent treaty remains a binding international obligation that would not be so easy to liquidate. Not exactly. The Constitution states that the president must “see to it that laws are executed expeditiously,” not that he must personally enforce the law. In general, the Attorney General of the United States is considered the highest law enforcement official in the land.
The Constitution gives Congress the power to establish other federal courts to deal with matters involving federal laws, including taxation and bankruptcy, lawsuits involving U.S. and state governments or the Constitution, and more. Other federal justice agencies and programs support the courts and conduct justice policy research. Above all, the president is always subject to the law in the exercise of these executive powers. The Supreme Court ruled that “the President`s duty to enforce laws is a duty that does not go beyond the law or require him to do more than Congress deems appropriate to leave in his power.” 5 The president has the power to sign legislation or veto legislation passed by Congress, although Congress may override a veto by a two-thirds majority of both houses. The executive branch engages in diplomacy with other nations, and the president has the power to negotiate and sign treaties that the Senate ratifies. The President may issue decrees directing agents or clarifying and extending existing laws. The president also has the power to extend pardons and pardons for federal crimes. Article II of the United States Constitution gives executive power to the President of the United States. As head of the executive branch, the President is responsible for enforcing laws drafted by the legislature (see “Congress”) and is empowered in various ways to carry out this task.
The President also exercises control over the power of Congress to legislate through the veto (see “Congress”; “separation of powers”; and Article I, § 7 of the United States Constitution). Article II also creates the office of Vice President of the United States, who is elected alongside the President (for more details on the presidential election, see “Electoral College” and Amendment XII to the United States Constitution) and is the first to succeed to the presidency if the president dies, leaves office, or becomes unable to serve during the term. In addition, the Vice President exercises legislative functions as President of the Senate (see “Congress”). Outside of these official duties, Vice-Presidents have historically held informal roles that vary from presidency to presidency. Under Article II of the Constitution, the President is responsible for the execution and enforcement of laws created by Congress. Fifteen executive departments, each headed by an appointed member of the President`s Office, are responsible for the day-to-day administration of the federal government. They are joined by other executive agencies such as the CIA and the Environmental Protection Agency, whose heads are not part of the cabinet, but who are under the full authority of the president. The president also appoints the heads of more than 50 independent federal commissions, such as the Federal Reserve Board or the Securities and Exchange Commission, as well as federal judges, ambassadors, and other federal offices. The Office of the President (EOP) consists of the President`s immediate staff and institutions such as the Office of Management and Budget and the Office of the U.S.
Trade Representative. The Department administers federal financial support for higher education, oversees educational programs and civil rights laws that promote equal opportunity in student learning opportunities, collects data and sponsors research on U.S. schools to improve the quality of education, and works to complement state and local government efforts. parents and students. Article II appoints the president as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, gives them treaty-making authority, and assigns them the appointment of federal officers. The division supports the U.S. economy and industry through a range of services, including collecting economic and demographic data, issuing patents and trademarks, improving understanding of the ocean environment and life, and making efficient use of scientific and technical resources. The agency also formulates telecommunications and technology policies and promotes U.S. exports by supporting and enforcing international trade agreements.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the federal agency responsible for national policies and programs that address America`s housing needs, improve and develop communities across the country, and enforce fair housing laws. The ministry plays an important role in supporting homeownership for low- and middle-income families through its mortgage insurance and rent subsidy programs. The legislature drafts bills, approves or rejects presidential appointments for heads of federal agencies, federal judges, and the Supreme Court, and has the power to declare war. This branch includes Congress (the Senate and the House of Representatives) and special agencies and offices that provide support services to Congress. U.S. citizens have the right to elect senators and representatives through free and confidential ballots. Executive power rests with the President of the United States, who also serves as head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The President is responsible for the administration and enforcement of laws made by Congress and appoints the heads of federal agencies, including the Cabinet, for this purpose. The Vice-President is also part of the executive branch and is ready to assume the presidency if necessary. With a budget of about $25 billion, the DOJ is the world`s largest law firm and the central authority for federal law enforcement.
The primary responsibility of the Vice President of the United States is to be ready to assume the presidency at any time if the President is unable to perform his duties. This may be due to the death, resignation or temporary incapacity of the President, or if the Vice-President and a majority of Cabinet believe that the President is no longer able to perform the President`s duties. “[The president] should ensure that laws are enforced expeditiously.” Article II, § 3. The executive branch enforces and enforces laws. It comprises the President, Vice-President, Cabinet, executive departments, independent bodies and other bodies, commissions and committees. Law enforcement describes the agencies and employees responsible for law enforcement, maintaining public order and managing public safety. The main tasks of law enforcement agencies include the investigation, arrest and detention of persons suspected of having committed a crime. Some law enforcement agencies, particularly sheriff`s offices, also play an important role in detaining those convicted of crimes. One of the most important duties of the President of the United States is his constitutional obligation to “see that laws are carried out conscientiously.” A president must not only shape policy, but also ensure that existing laws and the constitution are respected. In a way, that makes the president a senior law enforcement official. But as we point out below, it`s not always that simple. The Minister of Housing and Urban Development oversees more than 9,000 employees with a budget of about $40 billion.
“[The President] shall appoint and appoint, by the advice and assent of the Senate, such ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officials of the United States, whose appointments are not otherwise provided herein and who shall be determined by law: but Congress may, by law, delegate the appointment of such subordinate officials, as they see fit, alone with the President, with the courts or with heads of department. Article II, § 2.